Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Kairouan

Share your knowledge with us, Welcome to the English Department


    Translation part 2

    Share
    avatar
    Menyar

    Number of posts : 20
    Registration date : 2007-10-27

    Character sheet
    Dice Game:
    100/100  (100/100)

    Translation part 2

    Post by Menyar on Mon Nov 05, 2007 6:08 pm

    Lecture 1
    What is Translation?
    1.Multi-disciplinary activity.
    2.Accuracy.
    3.Clarity.
    4.Naturalness.
    The simplest definition of translation is retelling as exactly as possible the meaning of the original message in a way that is natural in the language into which is being made. However, such a definition disregards many of underlying complexities pertaining to the nature of translation. Indeed, translation is a multi-disciplinary activity. The translator has to master the 2 languages and negotiate the difficulties that arise when we transfer a message to another language which is different at many levels (phonology, morphology, syntax, discourse, history, values, and religion). These differences of language in culture underlie the multi-disciplinary nature of the translation task. But, although it is multi-disciplinary activity, there are some qualities according to which we can judge whether a translation is good or not. These include the 3 following qualities:
    -Accuracy: this means correct exegesis of the source message and transfer of the meaning of that message as exactly as possible into the Target Language.
    -Clarity: the translator may have several different ways of expressing ideas at his disposal and he normally chooses the way which communicates most clearly i.e. the way which ordinary people will understand.
    -Naturalness: it is important for the translator to use the natural form of Target Language, if he is to be effective and acceptable.
    The translator is constantly struggling to achieve the ideal in all these 3 areas which is not in reality an easy task. When it is not possible to reconcile on the three, then accuracy must have priority.
    Process and Product theory
    A second crucial point is needed to distinguish between the 3 polysemous of the term “translation”. Translation can denote the meaning of translating, a translation, and translation.
    - Translating: this is the process. It is the activity of translating rather than the tangible object.
    - A translation: means the product of the process of translating. It means the translated text itself.
    - Translation: means the abstract concept which encloses the process of translating and the product of that process. This leads us to ask the question of whether translation us a science or not.
    There is a long debate as to whether translation is an art or science. Literary translators such as Gregory Rabassa If this Be Reason argues that translation is an art. Other translators, however, especially those who work on technical, business, or legal documents regard translation as a science. But, most translators, however, agree that the situation depends on the nature of the text. A simple document such as a brochure can be translated quickly using simple techniques familiar to advanced language students. By contrast, a literary text will require not only the good language skills, but the art of good writing and cultural sensitivity. Culture is in fact a crucial element in translation.
    Language and culture
    Culture can be defined as the way of life and its manifestations that are peculiar to community which uses language. Many translation scholars distinguish cultural language from universal and personal language. For them, words like: father, die, live, swim, table are universals. Such words had a cultural aspect. The word “father” for example changes from one culture to another. The notion of fatherhood takes new characteristics in each different cultural community. The phenomenon gets complicated when we know that the Amazonian tribes have no father notion in their culture and consequently no such term is in their language.
    Cultural focus: when a speech community focuses its attention on a particular topic. This is usually called cultural focus. It generates a group of words to designate its special language or terminology. The English generated many terms on sports. French designated many words for bread and cheese. The Arabs designated many words in camels and dates.
    The procedure of translation: translation scholars have attempted to equip translators with a number of techniques and procedures that might help them in their tasks. These are: borrowing, calque, literal translation, transposition, modulation and adaptation.


    Last edited by Menyar on Sat Jul 05, 2008 1:11 pm; edited 2 times in total
    avatar
    Admin
    Admin

    Number of posts : 223
    Age : 30
    Registration date : 2006-11-21

    Character sheet
    Dice Game:
    100/100  (100/100)

    Re: Translation part 2

    Post by Admin on Tue Nov 06, 2007 3:06 am

    Did you asked if it's the same content as last year if it's the case i can tell you from where to have it or can introduce you to someone who has it!!
    if not i'm asking registered members studying in the 3rd year to help here Smile
    avatar
    Menyar

    Number of posts : 20
    Registration date : 2007-10-27

    Character sheet
    Dice Game:
    100/100  (100/100)

    Re: Translation part 2

    Post by Menyar on Wed Nov 07, 2007 3:03 pm

    Lecture 2
    The Translating Process

    All translators whether professional or amateur should have a knowledge base, they must know 3 things:
    -how propositions are structured (semantic knowledge),
    -how clauses can be synthesized to carry proposition content and analyzed to retrieve the content embedded in them (syntactic knowledge),
    -how the clause can be realized as information-baring text and how the text is decomposed into clauses (pragmatic knowledge).
    The lack of knowledge or control in any of the 3 cases would mean that the translator can not translate and if he does, his translation will be wrong.
    I.The Modal of the Translating process:
    The modal derives from work in psycholinguistics and in artificial intelligence on real time natural language processing.
    A.components and processes:
    It is assumed that the process of translation:
    1.Takes in both short-term and long-term memory through devices for decoding texts in the source language and encoding them into the target language through a non-language specific semantic representation.
    2.operates at the linguistic level of a clause.
    3.proceeds both in a bottom-up and top-down manner in processing the text.
    4.The system requires for both languages:
    a.a syntactic processor which handles the options of the mood system and contains a frequent lexis store (FLS), a lexical search mechanism (LSN), a frequent structure store (FSS), and a parser.
    b.Semantic processor handles the options available in the transitivity system.
    c.Pragmatic process handles the options available in the theme system (rhyme.
    d.Idea organiser: it organizes the progression of speech acts in the text as part of the strategy for carrying out plans for attaining goals which are devised and stored in the planner. This device is concerned with creating plans for reaching goals of all kinds.
    B.How the system works?
    The translation process is divided into analysis + synthesis which operate on three distinguishable areas: syntax, semantic, and pragmatic.
    1.Analysis
    a.Syntactic Analysis:
    The first major stage in translation is reading the text.
    E.g. The dog bit the man.
    The sentence is first taken in the syntactic processor for analysis and the clause is decomposed into syntactic structures. The default track through the processor would be for the clause to pass through both the FLS and FSS without recourse to the LSM or the parser.
    FLS and FSS have the function of relieving the short term memory STM of unnecessary storage by allowing large amounts of data to bypass the parser ( in the case of structure) and the lexical (in the case of lexis) and be directed immediately to the semantic level during analysis or the writing system during synthesis.
    -FLS: This is the mental equivalent of the physical terminology of the database which means an instant look at facilities for lexical items.
    -FSS: This represents a set of operations and evolves exploitations of frequently accurate structures which are stored in the memory.
    -The parser: This has the task of analysing any clause for which analysis appears necessary. If the lexical items in the clause can be matched with items already stored in the FLS, the parser exits the syntactic stage and enters the semantic level. At the parsing stage, we are concerned with the comprehension of structure and not content.
    E.g. The smaggly bognuts grolled the fimbled ashlars for a voit.
    It has the task of attempting to make sense of any lexical item which can not be matched with items already stored in the FLS. The LSM provides the means of trying to make sense of unknown words.
    2.Semantic analysis:
    It has the task of deriving content from the syntactic structure supplied by the previous stage analysis. It analyses what the clause is about, what it represents, and the logical relationship between the participants and the processes.
    E.g. The man bit the dog.
    A P Goal
    The syntactic analyser provides the information that the clause’s structure is SVO. The semantic analyser recognises the following structures: Actor- Process- Goal. We may conclude that the semantic structure is not frequent because the process between Actor and Goal is not logic.
    3.Pragmatic Analysis:
    The pragmatic processor has 2 functiond:
    -To isolate the thematic structure of the clause.
    -To provide a register analysis of it.
    The first function is concerned with the theme (distribution of information according to whether it is marked or unmarked)
    E.g. The dog bit the man
    Theme Rheme
    The theme and the rheme are equated.
    The second function is concerned with tenor, mode, and domain.
    -Tenor: formality, politeness, and impersonality.
    -Mode: channel of communication
    -Domain: referential speech act inferring
    .

    Sponsored content

    Re: Translation part 2

    Post by Sponsored content


      Current date/time is Tue Nov 21, 2017 10:23 pm