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    Introduction to Literature_Mr Rchid Amri

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    Registration date : 2006-11-21

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    Introduction to Literature_Mr Rchid Amri

    Post by Admin on Sat Mar 17, 2007 9:24 am

    University of Kairouan
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Kairouan Rachid AMRI
    Introduction to Literature
    Academic Year 2006-2007

    Course Description
    Course objective
    The
    course is an initiation to the language of literature through a study
    of the three literary genres in general (Poetry, Drama and Fiction) and
    the short story in particular. The short story is used as an axis for
    analysis in this first semester because it is the most concise form of
    literary prose available and the most accessible for our first year
    students. We focus on analyzing the short story. A conflict involving
    imaginary characters, the use of a setting for the action, an emphasis
    on the language used, and use of a narrative voice are identifiable
    characteristics which our students should find easy to get to when
    studying the short story. This provides an easy introduction to the
    concepts of analysis and evaluation. In this course, we present the
    information necessary for students to explore the elements of fiction
    and provide a basic format for the preparation of an exam which deals
    with these elements. In short, our aim is to help students to learn to
    write an interpretative response to a piece of literary writing.
    I General Introduction
    Poetry
    Poetic Diction: The poet’s choice of words (idiom) and the pattern in which he or she arranges them (syntax).
    Poetic Idioms:
    Poetry conveys both explicit and implicit meaning and communicates on
    many levels. (Choice of words: conform to a definite sound pattern,
    rhythm and form, sound and meaning).
    Figurative
    language
    :
    (figure of speech) devices used to convey ideas or images which are
    beyond the reach of literal expression. Poetry relies on the
    suggestive, connotative and metaphoric aspects to achieve a total
    response.
    Drama
    Etymology:
    Drama has a Greek origin. It goes back to the religious rituals
    associated with the cult of Dionysus in ancient Greece. (Myths were
    represented by actors)
    The specific
    nature of Drama: Drama is a composition in prose or verse to be acted
    upon the stage. The story is related by means of dialogue and action,
    and is represented with accompanying gesture, costume, and scenery as
    in real life.
    Comedy: Through action low-born characters end at a higher position. By identification, the audience would feel amusement and hope.
    Tragedy:
    (according to Aristotle) Misfortune is brought upon highly renowned
    characters of noble birth resulting in disaster. (Disaster is not
    necessarily owing to their innate corruptness or moral wickedness but
    to some error of judgment = Tragic Flaw.)
    The aim of Tragedy: to bring about Catharsis. Catharsis = arouse sensations of pity + fear = the spectators leave feeling cleansed.
    Fiction
    (The latest comer to the literary scene with the rise of the middle class in the first half of the 18th century)
    The specifics of fiction:
    A narrative form that involves telling rather than enacting. Unlike
    drama, characters, actions and setting is never perceived directly. It
    is always relayed through a teller or narrative source.
    Fictional Genres:
    The romance: tales that reworked well-known myths and fables drawn from ancient historical and
    literary source.
    The novella: a short prose narrative realistic in tone and represented everyday life set in the present instead of some legendary past.
    The novel:
    a fictitious prose narrative in which characters and actions
    representative of real life of past or present times are portrayed in a
    plot.
    II The Short Story
    A
    compact, intense prose narrative restricted in characters which usually
    focuses on a single central effect and read with undivided attention at
    one sitting.
    Central idea
    The central idea:
    The implied comment on the subject of the narrative. It is what the
    story reveals about some aspect of existence as the author perceives
    it.
    The central idea and the elements of fiction: how the elements of a
    story work together to convey the central idea. Each element influences and is influenced by the central idea.
    Conflict Characters setting



    Tone Language Point of view
    Interpretation: the process of deriving some generalization about life from the specifics of a story.
    Common problems with interpretation:
    no two readers will respond to and interpret a story in exactly the
    same way. Stories have multiple subjects and multiple levels of meaning
    and open to various interpretations. Because the story’s theme is
    rarely explicit, we must probe beneath the surface to discover what the
    author is trying to reveal.
    Character
    Character
    Types
    :
    Characters are the actors in the fictional narrative created by the
    author, the imaginary figures who advance the plot of the story.
    (Usually humans, but occasionally animals or some natural force)
    Round and Flat characters: Round (carefully drawn) and flat characters (lacking in complexity)
    Static and Dynamic Characters: static (does not change) and dynamic characters (undergoes some fundamental change)
    Characterization:
    development of character in a story. Direct presentation (telling what
    a character is like through explicit statement) and Indirect or
    Dramatic presentation (Showing what a character is like through
    actions, words, or thoughts)
    Plot
    Chronological order vs. Plot:
    Events are related in the order in which they occur in time, but an
    author may have reason for changing the chronological sequence. The
    reader is taken back and forth in time. The writer may choose to
    conceal some events until the end of the story (for surprise or
    suspense).
    The Plot Line: Exposition – Conflict – Complication – Climax – Resolution.
    Conflict and Plot: Conflict is a clash and resulting struggle between opposing forces; it is the connecting thread of the plot.
    External and Internal conflicts:
    External: involves a physical or mental struggle between a character and the social or physical environment.
    Internal: involves a character’s struggle with the self.
    Conflict and the Central Idea: Regardless of how many conflicts occur in a story, there is usually one which is central to the meaning.
    Point of View
    Point of view or narrative voice controls how and what the
    reader sees.
    First Person Narrator: the narrator is a character within the story.
    Omniscient Narrator: one who enters the consciousness of one or more characters to reveal their thoughts and feelings.
    Dramatic/objective Narrator: presents only the words and actions of characters. The reader is not let into consciousness of any character.
    Setting
    Setting refers to the time and place of a story. (essential factors in fiction)
    Specific and General Settings: (New York City 1940 / Long ago there lived a merchant whose wife…)
    The Setting and the Central Idea:
    setting supports the central idea of a story (gloomy and foreboding
    place foreshadows a tragedy / use of setting to achieve a mood of
    horror and fear)
    Language

    Imagery: Mental impressions evoked by words. Thus, for any description to be effective, it must create an image in the reader’s mind.
    Literal images: created by unambiguous nature of a word or phrase.
    Figurative images: reliance on the associated meanings words and phrases have.
    Similes and Metaphors: Simile says, "A is like B". The metaphor is more emphatic. It says, "A is B".
    Symbolism:
    To see certain things which communicate messages without using words. A
    symbol is something that suggests something else. (If we see a building
    with a minaret and a crescent on top, we assume it is a mosque.)
    Irony: To express a discrepancy between appearance and reality. (Verbal irony / dramatic irony / situational irony…)
    Tone
    Discovering and Describing the Tone:
    The words that usually describe your emotional response to a story can
    also describe its tone. (The tone can be comical, humorous, sorrowful,
    sad, fearful, terrifying…)
    The Elements of Fiction and Tone
    General Discussion
    Learning Outcomes:
    On successful completion of this course students will be able to:
    Demonstrate understanding and awareness of the language of literature.
    Apply knowledge of the acquired theoretical perspectives to the analysis of literary texts.
    Bibliography
    Studying the novel………….. ……………………J. Hawthorn………………………801.95 HAW.S
    An introduction to literature………………..Barnet, Berman, Burto, E.cain…………..808 Bar I
    Literature: An introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama……J. Kennedy/ D. Gioia…. 808 KEN L

    The Language of Literature……………….David Clarke……………………….……..801.95 CLA/L
    The Stanza…………………………………Ernst Haublein……………….............…..801.95 HAV
    The Sonnet...............................................John Fuller..............................………………801.95 FOL
    Metre, Rhyme and Free Verse…………….. G.S. Fraser…………………….................801.95 FRAU
    Drama and the Dramatic............................S.W. Dawson........................……………….801.95 DAW
    Composition and Literature………………...Winifred Bryan……………………..….. 808.042 HOR

    Dr. Annette Olsen FAZI

    Number of posts : 1
    Registration date : 2007-09-03

    Re: Introduction to Literature_Mr Rchid Amri

    Post by Dr. Annette Olsen FAZI on Mon Sep 03, 2007 12:13 am

    Hi, colleague --
    Nice to see you here.
    Annette

      Current date/time is Wed Nov 22, 2017 2:03 pm